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Installing cPanel/WHM on a Linux VPS (Updated 2017)

Install cPanel/WHM

To install cPanel & WHM on your server, run the following command:

cd /home && curl -o latest -L https://securedownloads.cpanel.net/latest && sh latest

This command changes your session to the home directory, downloads the latest version of cPanel & WHM, and runs the installation script.

Minimum Requirements

Please note the minimum suggested RAM and disk space!

Operating system OS version Processor RAM Disk Space Architecture
Minimum Recommended Minimum Recommended
CentOS, CloudLinux, or RHEL 7 226 MHz 768 MB 1 GB 20 GB 40 GB 64-bit

Install cPanel-DNSONLY

To install cPanel DNSONLY, perform the following steps:

  1. To open the /home directory, run the following command:
    cd /home
  2. To fetch the latest installation files from cPanel’s servers, run the following command:
    curl -o latest-dnsonly -L https://securedownloads.cpanel.net/latest-dnsonly
  3. To open and execute the installation files, run the following command:
    sh latest-dnsonly

     

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Open Java Control Panel Settings from CMD (Windows)

There is a strange bug on Windows 10 / Server 2016 where, after installing Java, one can’t find Java in the start menu.

As a a workaround, or if you need to launch the Java Control Panel from a script or for other reasons, follow the steps below.

Open Command Prompt (Start > Run > cmd)

Copy the following into the command line, including quotes:

“c:\Program Files (x86)\Java\jre6\bin\javacpl.exe”

If the path is not found, navigate manually to c:\Program Files (x86)\Java\ and find the .exe within the version folder you have installed.

This article applies to:

  • Windows Server 2016
  • Windows 10
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How to Install IIS with PowerShell on Windows Server 2016 / VPS

Installing IIS With PowerShell

If you don’t have the GUI installed or just want to use the PowerShell command line interface (CLI) instead, follow these steps. This method is a lot faster than going through all of the GUI options.

  1. Open PowerShell with administrative privileges and run the Install-WindowsFeature cmdlet as shown below.
    Install-WindowsFeature -name Web-Server -IncludeManagementToolspowershell-install-iis
  2. Here we include the management tools so that you can manage IIS on this server, as these are generally installed when using the GUI, making this PowerShell command equivalent with the GUI method below. If you do not plan on managing IIS through this server then you may prefer to not include this option.
  3. Once the installation has succeeded, you’ll be returned to the PowerShell prompt. At this point IIS should be running on port 80 by default with the firewall rule “World Wide Web Services (HTTP Traffic-In)” enabled in Windows firewall automatically.
  4. We can perform a simple test by opening up a web browser and browsing to the server that we have installed IIS on. You should see the default IIS page.

default-iis-website

This article applies to:

  • Windows Server 2016
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Installing ioping to Benchmark HDD/SSD on CentOS 7

If you want to benchmark the storage speed or storage i/o latency on a CentOS VPS or server, ioping is an excellent tool to use. Follow the steps below to install ioping on CentOS 7 and run a test.

How to Install ioping

Create and navigate to the directory where ioping will be installed.

cd ~
mkdir ioping
cd ioping

Download the installation file using wget.

wget https://github.com/koct9i/ioping/archive/v1.0.tar.gz

Extract the tarball file.

tar -xzvf v1.0.tar.gz

Enter the directory and compile ioping.

cd ioping-1.0
make ioping

Usage

Ioping has a list of built-in commands. Run ioping without any arguments to show the list.

ioping

To show sequential latency, enter the following command.

ioping -R /dev/sda

To determine the latency of the entire drive, run this command.

ioping -c 10 /

 

 

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Switching to MPM Event / MPM Worker in Apache (CentOS VPS/Server)

Apache MPM (Multi-Processing Modules) are modules for Apache web server that control the creation of child processes. There are a few different varieties of MPMs available, each with its own type of child process management. The default Apache MPM is Prefork.

Follow the guide below to Disable Prefork MPM and Enable Event MPM on Apache web server. This guide is written for CentOS/RHEL, but should also work with any Apache installation on other Linux operating systems.

Enable Event MPM in Apache

First edit Apache MPM configuration file in your favorite text editor.

vim /etc/httpd/conf.modules.d/00-mpm.conf

Comment out the LoadModule line for mpm_prefork_module, mpm_worker_module, and uncomment the LoadModule line for mpm_event_module in configuration, as shown below.

#LoadModule mpm_prefork_module modules/mod_mpm_prefork.so
#LoadModule mpm_worker_module modules/mod_mpm_worker.so

LoadModule mpm_event_module modules/mod_mpm_event.so 

 

After making above changes, save the file and restart the Apache service.

systemctl restart httpd

Check Active MPM in Apache

Now you have successfully enabled Event MPM in your Apache server. To verify current MPM enabled on your server use following command.

[root@VPS ~]# httpd -V | grep MPM
Server MPM:     event

That’s it! The MPM has been successfully switched to MPM – Event.

This article applies to:

  • Apache on CentOS Linux
  • Apache on RHEL
  • Apache on Fedora Linux
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cPanel/WHM run backup manually from Shell

After configuring backups in WHM > Backup Configuration, use the command below to trigger a backup manually, if you don’t want to wait for the next scheduled backup to run.

This command must be run from the server Shell. Log in to shell via Putty, Terminal, or a Shell (SSH) client.

Then, run the command below:

/usr/local/cpanel/bin/backup

The backup process will begin running immediately, and you can track the progress in the backup logs located at: /usr/local/cpanel/logs/cpbackup

This article applies to:

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Port Forwarding on Windows Server or VPS

Windows Firewall is a utility included with all recent versions of Windows. It includes options to open and close ports, allow specific ports and programs through the firewall, which is the equivalent of “port forwarding” on a Windows Server or Windows VPS that is not behind a NAT device. In this guide we will show you how to forward a specific port on a Windows VPS or dedicated server.

How To Port Forward on Windows VPS

First, open Control Panel and navigate to System & Security. Then, open Windows Firewall. In the left-hand menu, click “Advanced settings”.

Screen Shot 2015-06-29 at 4.22.09 PM

The Advanced Security panel will appear. In the left-hand menu, there are two types of rules:

  • Inbound Rules: Rules that deny or allow traffic coming in to the server from outside.
  • Outbound Rules: Rules that deny or allow traffic going out to the network from the server.

Screen Shot 2015-06-29 at 4.23.06 PM

It is often useful to create both an inbound rule and an outbound rule for your application’s port. Repeat the following steps 2 times, once for Inbound, and once for Outbound. First, right-click “Inbound Rules” and select “New Rule…” 

Screen Shot 2015-06-29 at 4.23.24 PM

 Choose the type of rule to setup. We are defining a specific Port number.

Screen Shot 2015-06-29 at 4.23.41 PM

Type the port number your application uses, and choose TCP or UDP protocol (most applications use TCP).

Screen Shot 2015-06-29 at 4.24.01 PM

Select whether to apply the rule only on local (private) networks, or on public networks as well. You will want to select Public, most likely.

Screen Shot 2015-06-29 at 4.24.39 PM

Finally, select whether this rule is for explicitly allowing connections on this port, or explicitly blocking connections on this port.

Screen Shot 2015-06-29 at 4.24.18 PM

That’s it! The firewall rule will go into effect immediately, opening the port to traffic to (or from) your server. As we noted above, be sure to repeat the process as an Outbound rule, if you want to open a port for both sending and receiving.

Need help?

We are happy to help with opening ports and other Windows Server configuration questions!

This guide applies to:

  • Windows Server 2016
  • Windows Server 2012 R2
  • Windows Server 2008 R2
  • Windows Server 2008
  • Windows 8
  • Windows 7
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Running 32-bit Programs on Windows Server 2016 or 2012 R2 64-bit

Running 32-bit Programs

Ideally, running 32-bit applications on 64-bit versions of Windows Server will “just work.” 64-bit editions of Windows are compatible with 32-bit programs by default, and the C:\Program Files (x86) folder is designated for these applications. The system runs 32-bit applications as part of the default Windows OS.

If you are having trouble launching an application on 64-bit Windows, try the steps below to run a 32-bit program on Windows Server.

1. Check the program is installed to C:\Program Files (x86). If not, Uninstall and then Install the program again with C:\Program Files (x86) selected as the installation path.

2. Launch the program from the 32-bit emulated Command Prompt. Click Start > Run, and enter:

%SystemRoot%\SYSWOW64\cmd.exe

Command Prompt should open. Now type the path to your installed 32-bit application .exe and press enter.

WOW64 is the x86 emulator that allows 32-bit Windows-based applications to run seamlessly on 64-bit Windows. WOW64 is provided with the operating system and does not have to be explicitly enabled. 

For more info, visit: https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa384249%28v=vs.85%29.aspx?f=255&MSPPError=-2147217396

Running 16-bit Programs

Note that 64-bit Windows does not support running 16-bit Windows-based applications. The primary reason is that handles have 32 significant bits on 64-bit Windows. Therefore, handles cannot be truncated and passed to 16-bit applications without loss of data. Attempts to launch 16-bit applications fail with the following error: ERROR_BAD_EXE_FORMAT.

This article applies to:

  • Windows Server 2016
  • Windows Server 2012 R2
  • Windows Server 2008 R2
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How to Install IIS from Desktop GUI on Windows Server 2016 / VPS

Installing IIS on Windows Server 2016

If your server has the graphical user interface component installed you can also install IIS by following these steps.

  1. Open Server Manager, this can be found in the start menu. If it’s not there simply type “Server Manager” with the start menu open and it should be found in the search.server-manager-windows-2016
  2. Click the “Add roles and features” text.server-manager-add-roles-and-features-2016
  3. On the “Before you begin” window, simply click the Next button.
  4. On the “Select installation type” window, leave “Role-based or feature-based installation” selected and click Next.
  5. As we’re installing to our local machine, leave “Select a server from the server pool” with the current machine selected and click Next. Alternatively you can select another server that you are managing from here, or a VHD.
  6. From the “Select server roles” window, check the box next to “Web Server (IIS)”. Doing this may open up a new window advising that additional features are required, simply click the “Add Features” button to install these as well. Click Next back on the Select server roles menu once this is complete.
  7. We will not be installing any additional features at this stage, so simply click Next on the “Select features” window.
  8. Click Next on the “Web Server Role (IIS)” window after reading the information provided.
  9. At this point on the “Select role services” window you can install additional services for IIS if required. You don’t have to worry about this now as you can always come back and add more later, so just click Next for now to install the defaults.
  10. Finally on the “Confirm installation selections” window , review the items that are to be installed and click Install when you’re ready to proceed with installing the IIS web server.No reboot should be required with a standard IIS installation, however if you remove the role a reboot will be needed.
  11. Once the installation has succeeded, click the close button. At this point IIS should be running on port 80 by default with the firewall rule “World Wide Web Services (HTTP Traffic-In)” enabled in Windows firewall automatically.
  12. We can perform a simple test by opening up a web browser and browsing to the server that we have installed IIS on. You should see the default IIS page. default-iis-website

This article applies to:

  • Windows Server 2016
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SQL Server 2016 Version Differences & Licensing: Web, Standard, and Enterprise

SQL Server 2016 includes more features than ever before, but it can be difficult to find the differences between versions of SQL Server.

The primary difference is the licensing model, which limits how SQL Server may be used on the server it is installed on. A majority of SQL Server features are available in both SQL Server Web and Standard editions. There are some differences around mirroring (Web can only serve as a witness), publishing (Web can only subscribe), and performance (Web does not come with SQL Profiler).

SQL Server Versions

SQL Server edition Definition
Enterprise The premium offering, SQL Server Enterprise edition delivers comprehensive high-end datacenter capabilities with blazing-fast performance, unlimited virtualization, and end-to-end business intelligence — enabling high service levels for mission-critical workloads and end user access to data insights.
Standard SQL Server Standard edition delivers basic data management and business intelligence database for departments and small organizations to run their applications and supports common development tools for on-premise and cloud — enabling effective database management with minimal IT resources.
Web SQL Server Web edition is a low total-cost-of-ownership option for Web hosters and Web VAPs to provide scalability, affordability, and manageability capabilities for small to large scale Web properties.

SQL Server Licensing

SQL Server edition Licensing Format
Enterprise Licensed per User (CAL) or per CPU. Each license (User CAL) covers one authorized user who will access the database server. It is required to license all users who will have access to the database server. Alternatively, “unlimited” license may be purchased per CPU. It is required to license all CPUs on the server where SQL Server is running. For pricing, see SQL Server Hosting.
Standard Licensed per User. Each license (User CAL) covers one authorized user who will access the database server. It is required to license all users who will have access to the database server. For pricing, see SQL Server Hosting.
Web Licensed per 2 CPU cores. Licenses are provided in packs of 2, so 1 license covers 2 CPU cores. It is required to license all cores on the server where SQL Server is running. For pricing, see SQL Server Hosting.

We provide licensing for hosted cloud servers, for all editions of SQL Server 2016. For more info, please visit SQL Server Hosting.

Scale Limits

Feature Enterprise Standard Web Express with Advanced Services Express
Maximum compute capacity used by a single instance – SQL Server Database Engine1 Operating system maximum Limited to lesser of 4 sockets or 24 cores Limited to lesser of 4 sockets or 16 cores Limited to lesser of 1 socket or 4 cores Limited to lesser of 1 socket or 4 cores
Maximum compute capacity used by a single instance – Analysis Services or Reporting Services Operating system maximum Limited to lesser of 4 sockets or 24 cores Limited to lesser of 4 sockets or 16 cores Limited to lesser of 1 socket or 4 cores Limited to lesser of 1 socket or 4 cores
Maximum memory for buffer pool per instance of SQL Server Database Engine Operating System Maximum 128 GB 64 GB 1410 MB 1410 MB
Maximum memory for Columnstore segment cache per instance of SQL Server Database Engine Unlimited memory 32 GB2 16 GB2 352 MB2 352 MB2
Maximum memory-optimized data size per database in SQL Server Database Engine Unlimited memory 32 GB2 16 GB2 352 MB2 352 MB2
Maximum memory utilized per instance of Analysis Services Operating System Maximum Tabular: 16 GBMOLAP: 64 GB N/A N/A N/A
Maximum memory utilized per instance of Reporting Services Operating System Maximum 64 GB 64 GB 4 GB N/A
Maximum relational database size 524 PB 524 PB 524 PB 10 GB 10 GB

1 Enterprise Edition with Server + Client Access License (CAL) based licensing (not available for new agreements) is limited to a maximum of 20 cores per SQL Server instance. There are no limits under the Core-based Server Licensing model. For more information, see Compute Capacity Limits by Edition of SQL Server.

2 Applies to SQL Server 2016 SP1.

Source: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sql/sql-server/editions-and-components-of-sql-server-2016

Visit docs.microsoft.com for up-to-date documentation on Microsoft SQL Server 2016.

This article applies to:

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